Franklin Public Library Murals and Friezes
During the last few years of Tommaso Juglaris’s stay in Boston, plans had been underway for a new Boston Public Library in Copley Square, not far from where Juglaris lived and worked every day.
Designed by Charles Follen McKim and Stanford White, the library’s walls--in keeping with the growing American interest in the decorative arts and the desire to make the building the “Assisi of American art”--were to be decorated with murals. Yet Juglaris was never approached about the project, nor was there any opportunity to compete for the plum assignment. Instead, the famous French muralist Pierre Puvis de Chavannes was privately invited by the library’s backers to paint the mural, The Muses of Inspiration, while conversations were pursued with James McNeil Whistler and other American artists. Subsequently, American expatriate John Singer Sargent was selected to paint a much-touted mural cycle, The Triumph of Religion (1890-1919), which was actually a celebration of Protestant rationalism and individualism. A second American expatriate artist, Edwin Abbey, was also recruited. He chose as his subject The Quest for the Holy Grail, inspired by Mark Twain’s contemporaneous novel, Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur’s Court.
The situation could only have been frustrating for Juglaris, who, besides being well-known as an artist and teacher across Boston, had more experience as a muralist than the artists who were chosen, aside from Puvis de Chavannes. It may have been one more factor in Juglaris’s decision to end his decade-long stay in the United States.
As it turned out, ten years later Juglaris had another chance to display his considerable talents as a muralist on American shores. In 1901, Juglaris’s former student and friend Henry Hammond Gallison persuaded the wealthy daughters of a woolen mill owner in Franklin, Massachusetts to memorialize their late parents, Joseph and Emily Ray, with the construction of a new building for the oldest public library in America. Located directly across from the campus of historic Dean College, the “Ray Memorial” was intended to authentically replicate an ancient Greek temple. As part of the interior design and decoration, Gallison not only proposed to contribute large paintings of his own but also encouraged the Ray sisters to engage Juglaris to provide murals for the new library’s Reading Room. Later, Juglaris’s commission was expanded to include friezes for the library’s grand entrance Memorial Hall. The Ray Memorial commission offered Juglaris a magnificent opportunity to prove his skill as a muralist. He was determined to use it well, particularly in light of his exclusion from the Boston Public Library commissions.
Spending winters in Turin and summers in Franklin, Providence and Gallison’s studio at the art colony in Annisquam, Massachusetts, Juglaris executed a vast, 240 foot-long, twelve-foot-high mural cycle on canvas entitled Grecian Festival. It presents a predawn procession of priests, government officials, musicians, dancers, and citizens en route to a temple beyond the city gates in order to pay homage and offer sacrifice to their civic deity. Juglaris also completed five friezes for the Memorial Hall representing Hours of Labor, Hours of Sleep, Hours of Pleasure, Morning, and Evening.
All of the themes were topical. The Grecian Festival panorama was in keeping with a pastoral, arcadian emphasis in turn-of-the-century art, as well as popular concern for civic duty and communal responsibility subsequently embodied in the high ideals of America’s “City Beautiful” and Progressive Movements. The friezes devoted to The Hours underscore the importance of balance between work and leisure, a simultaneous concern of the American labor movement, determined to secure an eight-hour work day.
A Wife Remembers
In her own personal memoir, A Life on Two Continents, Marie Reuter Gallison recalls with considerable detail the commission from the Ray sisters that brought her husband and Juglaris together again for one of the greatest creative projects of their respective careers. As Marie Gallison explains: “Henry comes home one day glowing with enthusiasm. Lydia Ray, only [sic] daughter of Joseph Ray, a wealthy manufacturer of Franklin had given him a commission to erect a library in Franklin in memory of her parents. When he told me this I said to him: ‘If Lydia is wise, she’ll put [aside] at least double the sum for the contract.’ Henry’s intention was to build a Greek temple to show the young people of Franklin the difference between a dignified building and the usual clubhouse. Immediately, he set to work. After many disappointments and difficulties which had to be overcome the outward building was finished. Now the interior was to be ornamented with pictures. He hoped to get help from the Boston artists; but their ideas and his clashed, and they asked exorbitant prices for their work. So he bethought himself of his old friend Juglaris, an Italian, with whom he had worked for some time on our return from Europe. Juglaris was delighted to come once more back to the U.S.A., where he was known already for his designs for windows in and around New York and Boston. He at once promised to come over for a fabulously small sum. For the following three summers Juglaris came from Italy to Annisquam to do the painting on canvas. Henry himself painted several pictures, showing German fairy tales for the nursery.”
Although Marie Gallison’s candid remarks provide valuable background on the Ray Memorial commission, noting the enthusiasm and delight with which both her husband and Juglaris undertook the project, memory does not always serve her perfectly. The paintings by Henry Hammond Gallison for the library were all landscape scenes. Whatever paintings he intended for the Children’s Reading Room, based on German fairy tales, were never executed, perhaps due to an exhaustion of resources available to him from the Ray sisters or his own deteriorating health.